Medio Ambiente

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ycsn
Aprendiz
Aprendiz
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Medio Ambiente

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Subforo creado para tratar temas relacionados con el medio ambiente.
ycsn
Aprendiz
Aprendiz
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Registrado: 22 Nov 2007 00:11

Mensaje por ycsn »

El Ministerio de Defensa restringirá el desarrollo de maniobras militares con utilización del sónar en aguas canarias para evitar varamientos y muertes masivas de zifios como los que se produjeron a principios de este siglo y que tanto instituciones públicas como grupos ecologistas han relacionado directamente con el uso militar de estos instrumentos.

http://www.eldia.es/2007-12-18/canarias/canarias0.htm
Zigor
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Mensaje por Zigor »

Fundamentalmente será la potencia y frecuencias sonoras de los sónares lo que produzca esos problemas en cetáceos, tendrán que realizar algunas pruebas de I+D para agudizar efectividad táctica minimizando impactos naturales.

Hay algo peor que el sonar contra los animales marinos, son las protecciones antitorpedos por onda de choque que se están desarrollando para aplicar en los cascos de los barcos unos transductores (especie de altavoces colocados en el casco por debajo de la línea de flotación) de modo que ante la detección de torpedos dirigiéndose al navío se pueda modular una onda de choque lo suficientemente potente como para averiar el torpedo ó hacer que detone como si chocase contra objetivo. La fuente de esto es la revista Muy interesante.
".............Jakitea irabazteko............."
JO TA KE, SUGEA ZAPALDU ARTE !!!
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Esteban
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Registrado: 10 Ene 2007 18:38

Mensaje por Esteban »

hay mucha bibliografía sobre el tema. Los sonares parece que son los LFA, que equipan a las unidades mas modernas, aparte se requiere una gran profundidad y unas costas o islas tipo volcánico que emerjan inmediatamente del fondo, porque los cifios se desorientan con las pulsaciones, tienden a ir a la superficie sin descompensar y revientan por dentro. El Nato Undersea Research Centre es uno de los organismos que lideran estas investigaciones, junto al Instituto Hidrográfico de la Armada Española.

El convenio de Canarias con Defensa data de 2004 en que se prohibieron ejercicios de tipo antisubmarino tras las varadas de las Majestic Eagle 04; esa prohibición estaba enfocada al mar entre Canarias y Sahara. Durante la preparación y ejecución de las Stead Fast Jaguar 06 en Cabo Verde, con la certificación de la NRF frente a muchisimas autoridades, uno de los temas clave fue el tema de los mamíferos marinos, tomándose unas medidas muy cuidadosas, que fueron comunicadas a los organismos civiles.

Este artículo está bien:
According to a report by the scientific committee of the International Whaling Commission, one of the world's leading bodies of whale biologists, the evidence linking sonar to a series of whale strandings in recent years is "very convincing and appears overwhelming." Despite the broad scientific consensus that military active sonar kills whales, the use of this deadly sonar in the world's oceans is spreading.

An NRDC-led coalition of wildlife advocates succeeded in restricting the U.S. Navy's use of a powerful active sonar system known as SURTASS LFA in 2003. But the fight is hardly over; other nations are developing LFA-type systems of their own, and sonar testing using mid-frequency sonar systems, which have been implicated in numerous strandings of whales worldwide, continues unabated, putting marine mammals and fisheries at risk. And the Bush administration is now appealing the legal victory that compelled the Navy into compromise.

In response, NRDC and its partners have redoubled our campaign, both at home and abroad, to control the spread of this harmful technology. In October 2005, after attempting for years to engage the Navy in constructive dialogue on the harms caused by its mid-frequency sonar systems, NRDC brought suit in U.S. federal court, together with a coalition of wildlife advocates, asking that the Navy take common-sense precautions during peacetime training with mid-frequency sonar.

Such measures include, for example, putting rich marine mammal habitat off limits; avoiding migration routes and feeding or breeding areas when marine mammals are present; and listening with passive sonar to ensure marine mammals are not in the testing area before switching on active sonar. We are also continuing to support our hard-won agreement limiting deployment of the Navy's LFA system, defending our victory in court from the Navy's appeal.

Internationally, NRDC is working hard to raise awareness of the problem of ocean noise. NRDC and several other international conservation groups -- together representing millions of members -- are pressuring international institutions to reduce sonar's harm to whales and other marine life, and getting results:

• In October 2004, in response to urging by this new coalition, the European Parliament called on its 25 member states to stop deploying high-intensity active sonar until more is known about the harm it inflicts on whales and other marine life.

• In November 2004, the World Conservation Congress of the IUCN approved a resolution calling for international action to address the problem of ocean noise, including military sonar.

• In February 2005, the coalition petitioned NATO to use simple safety measures to protect marine life from needless harm during sonar exercises.

Some nations, like Spain, have already begun to change their sonar practices, prohibiting exercises in certain sensitive areas.

Active Sonar: How It Harms Marine Life

Military active sonar works like a floodlight, emitting sound waves that sweep across tens or even hundreds of miles of ocean, revealing objects in their path. But that kind of power requires the use of extremely loud sound. Each loudspeaker in the LFA system's wide array, for example, can generate 215 decibels' worth -- sound as intense as that produced by a twin-engine fighter jet at takeoff.

Some mid-frequency sonar systems can put out over 235 decibels, as loud as a Saturn V rocket at launch. Even 100 miles from the LFA system, sound levels can approach 160 decibels, well beyond the Navy's own safety limits for humans.

Evidence of the harm such a barrage of sound can do began to surface in March 2000, when whales of four different species stranded themselves on beaches in the Bahamas after a U.S. Navy battle group used active sonar in the area. Investigators found that the whales were bleeding internally around their brains and ears. Although the Navy initially denied responsibility, the government's investigation established with virtual certainty that the strandings were caused by its use of active sonar. Since the incident, the area's population of Cuvier's beaked whales has all but disappeared, leading researchers to conclude that they either abandoned their habitat or died at sea.

The Bahamas, it turned out, was only the tip of an iceberg. Additional mass strandings and deaths associated with military activities and active sonar have occurred in Madeira (2000), Greece (1996), the U.S. Virgin Islands (1998, 1999), the Canary Islands (1985, 1988, 1989, 2002, 2004), the northwest coast of the United States (2003) and coastal waters off North Carolina (2005). And in July 2004 researchers uncovered an extraordinary concentration of whale strandings near Yokosuka, a major U.S. Navy base off the Pacific coast of Japan. The Navy's active sonar program appears to be responsible for many more whale strandings than had previously been imagined.

How does active sonar harm whales? According to a report in the scientific journal Nature, animals that came ashore during one mass stranding had developed large emboli, or bubbles, in their organ tissue. The report suggested that the animals had suffered from something akin to a severe case of "the bends" -- the illness that can kill scuba divers who surface too quickly from deep water. The study supports what many scientists have long suspected: that the whales stranded on shore are only the most visible symptom of a problem affecting much larger numbers of marine life.

Other impacts, though more subtle, are no less serious. Marine mammals and many species of fish use sound to follow migratory routes, locate each other over great distances, find food and care for their young. Noise that undermines their ability to hear can threaten their ability to function and, over the long term, to survive. Naval sonar has been shown to alter the singing of humpback whales, an activity essential to the reproduction of this endangered species; to disrupt the feeding of orcas; and to cause porpoises and other species to leap from the water, or panic and flee. Over time, these effects could undermine the fitness of populations of animals, contributing to what prominent biologist Sylvia Earle has called "a death of a thousand cuts."

Reining in LFA Sonar

Since 1994, when NRDC began investigating rumors that sound experiments were taking place off the California coast, LFA (Low-frequency Active) sonar has been of particular concern because of the enormous distances traveled by its intense blasts of sound. During testing off the California coast, noise from a single LFA system was detected across the breadth of the North Pacific. By the Navy's own estimates, even 300 miles from the source these sonic waves can retain an intensity of 140 decibels -- still a hundred times more intense than the noise aversion threshold for gray whales. Many scientists believe that blanketing the oceans with such deafening sound could harm entire populations of whales, dolphins and fish.

NRDC's decade-long campaign to expose the dangers of active sonar won a major victory in August 2003, when a federal court ruled illegal the Navy's plan to deploy LFA sonar through 75 percent of the world's oceans. On the heels of this ruling, the Navy agreed to limit use of the system to a fraction of the area originally proposed, and that use of LFA sonar will be guided by negotiated geographical limits and seasonal exclusions. Conservationists believe this will protect critical habitat and whale migrations, and the Navy also retains the flexibility it needs for training exercises. None of the limits apply during war or heightened threat conditions. The pact demonstrates that current law can safeguard both the environment and national security.

But the ink was barely dry on the historic settlement when the Bush administration pushed legislation through Congress that exempts the U.S. military from core provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act -- leaving the armed forces much freer to harm whales, dolphins and other marine mammals in the course of using high-intensity sonar and underwater explosives. Exemptions in hand, the administration is now appealing the ruling limiting deployment of LFA sonar -- a hard-won court victory NRDC stands ready to defend.

Keep the Pressure On
NRDC's efforts to bring attention to the serious risks of active sonar have been aided immeasurably by the tens of thousands of messages our members and other activists have sent, insisting that active sonar not be used until the long-term safety of ocean wildlife can be assured.
Today, we are increasing pressure on the international community and the U.S. Navy to reduce the impact of active sonar on our oceans, before it's too late. As our campaign expands, we will need your help more than ever. Join NRDC's Earth Activist Network -- you'll receive a biweekly email alert highlighting urgent environmental issues needing your immediate help.
http://www.nrdc.org/default.asp
La necesidad permite lo prohibido.
Tor
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Registrado: 23 Ago 2007 19:07

Mensaje por Tor »

La verdad es que me parece muy bien que se intente que el medio ambiente no salga perjudicado por ningun tipo de maniobras militares.
En el año 2002 estuve presente en "NEOTAPON 2002", fueron una maniobras militares de la OTAN que se desarrollaron en las costas Canarias, mas concretamente entre las costas de Fuerteventura y el Sahara, y aquello se convirtio en un desastre medio ambiental, ya que se produjo el varamiento, y como consecuencia de ello, la muerte de muchos cetaceos, y sin duda fue una imagen muy triste, ver aquellos animales agonizando. Por eso creo que es necesario que se tomen medidas. Aunque las maniobras son necesaria para mantener a la tropa preparada, también es necesario proteger nuetro medio ambiente, y estoy convencido de que tanto las maniobras como la protección del medio ambiente, con los medios adecuados pueden ser compatibles.
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Esteban
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Mensaje por Esteban »

Entonces se sabía poco de los efectos del LFA en los grandes mamíferos marinos, y siempre aparecía una fragata o un destructor aliados que emitían a lo bestia, y pasaba lo que pasaba.

Aquel espectáculo fue muy triste, pero también fue la manipulación que se hizo de cara a los medios, con activistas arrastrando con tractores cifios para llevarlos a la playa del desembarco el dia de la prensa.

Hoy día se sabe mucho más y Defensa ha invertido bastante en convenios científicos. la gente del Instituto Hidrográfico sabe muchísimo del tema, como los del NURC. En el ramo civil, la universidad de las Palmas tiene unos estudios muy buenos sobre el "síndrome del embolismo graso en los cifios".
La necesidad permite lo prohibido.
ycsn
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Aprendiz
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Registrado: 22 Nov 2007 00:11

Mensaje por ycsn »

El Ministerio de Medio Ambiente tiene la intención de poner en internet los mapas de todas las zonas inundables de España para que los ciudadanos puedan consultarlos antes de llevarse sorpresas desagradables, como, por ejemplo, comprar una casa sin saber que se encuentra en el epicentro de una riada…

Pero ésta no será la única información colgada en internet. Palop (director general del agua) y la ministra de Medio Ambiente, Cristina Narbona, presentaron hace días un ambicioso Sistema Integrado de Información del Agua, una herramienta que comenzará a funcionar exclusivamente “on line” el próximo 2 de enero.

A partir de esa fecha, los ciudadanos podrán consultar los volúmenes de los embalses; el estado de los ríos; la calidad de las aguas; la situación ecológica de las cuencas…

Medio Ambiente ya proporcionaba alguno de estos datos: el nivel de los embalses… a través de su web, pero de una forma poco accesible para de una forma poco accesible para los ciudadanos. Ahora se ofrecerá siempre en tiempo real, al estar conectado el servidor con los medidores de los pantanos, de los ríos y de los acuíferos.

Señores el agua es un bien muy escaso que debemos aprovechar mejor porque se está acabando. Feliz navidad a todos.
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